Pioneers of the Indian History_Page 1
The ancient India was the richest country in the world. It had plenty of gold, minerals, and fertile soil for agricultural production. The towns and cities were the most planned and civilized. It even had the first university in the world by the name of Takshila in 700 BC which is now in Pakistan. The administration was efficient and there was a tax system to collect revenues for the sake of citizens' welfare just like the present government does.
This was the time when Alexander invaded India and added a new chapter to the history. The Persians used to collect revenues in gold from the Indian territories that were ruled by them. This generated the interest in Greeks to invade and loot the Indian subcontinent. Till then, Alexander had already conquered Persia and decided to carry on his ambition of capturing the world. He directed his cavalry to head towards India. After crossing the Indus River, he made an alliance with King Ambi of Taxila.
When Ambi did not show any resistance to him, he crossed the Hydaspes River and led a war against King Porus. The fiercest battle fought between these two great kings caused lots of damage to both the sides. King Porus was known for his bravery and he put up a strong fight against the Greek army. In the end, the Punjab king was defeated and captured. When Alexander asked him how he should be treated, Porus very calmly replied "like a king would treat another king." Alexander was already impressed by his bravery and this answer just augmented the impression so high that he returns the kingdom to Porous.
This was the golden era of the ancient Indian history. This period was dominated by the Mauryan dynasty. It was established by Chandragupta Maurya under the able guidance of Chanaky who dreamed about one kingdom and one country. He wanted to unite all the small and big territories in the country under one single empire. He succeeded in fulfilling his ambition by providing all the martial skills, warfare tactics and administration knowledge to Chandragupta Maurya.
The Mauryan empire took care of the civilian and its army by providing them smooth administration and affordable tax system. This helped the people to enjoy a stress-free life. The administration also clear ways to trade and commerce. Every personnel in the army were treated equally regardless of the rank. As such, the army was ever ready to face any threats from outsiders. Each town and village under this rule had skilled administrators to tackle situations like flood and famine.
Literature were given more importance by the Mauryan emperors. They had a deep interest in art and religious values and built many Hindu temples and spread the religious customs in entire northern India. Books written by Chanakya on politics and economics are still treasured by the Indian government.
Chandragupta was succeeded by his son, Bindusaar. He ruled for 32 years from 301 - 272 BC. During his rule, he included 16 different states under his crown. After him, his son, Ashok took the reign in his hand and became the most successful of the Mauryan clan. He captured and spread his rule to the far west of Pakistan and Afghanistan. After the Kalinga War, he took to Buddhism and spread the teachings of Lord Buddha to far places.
This is the medieval period of Indian history and is regarded as the classic. This period saw the rise and fall of many different rulers in India. All the territories stretching from north to south and east to west were under different rulers who were independent and created a history of their legacies. The most noted among them were the dynasties of Chola, Chalukya, Pallava, and the Pala.
The Chola Dynasty:
This dynasty is the oldest that has ruled the south of India as well as the South Asia. The Cholas ruled the Tamil regions for a longer time than any other rulers. King Rajaraja was the powerful ruler of this dynasty. Under his rule, the Chola kingdom became powerful and had a strong control over the southern India and other states touching the south. This was the best period for the Tamil culture to flourish. In spite of facing lots of extremism from the Pandyas and Chalukyas, king Rajaraja never lost a single battle in his time. His son, Rajendra I carried his father's legacy and extended the empire to the north of India. He also stretched his empire till the island of Sri Lanka.
The Chalukya Dynasty:
The Deccan region from 600 to 1200 AD was ruled by the Chalukya. They established many capital cities in the country to control the administration of their kingdom. They were known by the direction they ruled and hence were called the Western Chalukya, and the Eastern Chalukyas. The western capital of their time was Badami. Vengi was the capital of the East. The western region (present day Bijapur) was under Pulakesin I.
The Muslim from the Arab started invading India during this period. These rulers were interested in the wealth of India and led many attacks and plundered the town, villages and palaces they came across. Mohammad Bin Qasim was the first Arab to attack India in 715 AD. He defeated Raja Dahir and took over the Sindh (now in Karachi, Pakistan). After this conquest, there was no further attack by any Muslim rulers for another three centuries because they faced extreme resistance from Raja Bhoja and Gurjara Kings.
The next ruler who made his prominence in Indian history is Mohammad Ghori. He invaded India for seventeen times and inflicted heavy damages. He conquered Multan in 1175 - 76 AD. However, he faced a fierce resistance by Bhimdev II who occupied a crushing victory over him. He was again defeated by Prithvi Raj Chauhan in 1191 AD in the battle of Tarain. He regained the victory in 1192 AD. After that, he defeated Jaichand the king of Kannuaj and established his reign in the northern India.
These were the pioneers of the Indian history who created a presence in this history. There are many so incidences in the history which further changes the course of the country. For more information, click on the link given below and give a glance at India in short.
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