Indian History in Short
Let's start discussing the Indian history in short by starting with the Indus Valley Civilization. This civilization is the oldest in the world, which was based in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. The period during which this society was established is termed as the Bronze age. It was the largest and hugely populated civilized society of that time. This society flourished on the banks of the Indus River and in the cities the major part of which is now in Pakistan.
The Indus Civilization was advanced considering the time they lived in. They invented one of the most reliable sources of living which later developed into agricultural farming. This society was also adept in making handicrafts. They made household products like cups, saucers with clay, metals from copper, bronze, lead and tin, and other products. They traded these materials for other resources with merchants and traders from Iraq. The city they built were the most planned ones. They used bricks to construct single and multi-storied houses with the proper draining system.
The fifth century of the Indian history was mostly dominated by the great emperor, Ashoka. He was one of the most successful rulers in Indian history. However, the battle of Kalinga changed him completely and he took to Buddhism to do some penance. He imbibed the culture of meditation and peace and spread the message as long as his territory extended to the Asian region.
The Lodhis, Tughlaqs and other rulers of the west started invading India and establishing their base. Seeking inspiration from them, the Muslim attacked India during the eight century and made their dominance by the 11th century. Most of the northern regions were under their control at that time.
During the seventeenth century, the Europeans started approaching India through the sea route. They made their presence in the country as merchants and traders. However, with lots of intellectual abilities, modern machineries and huge army, they started capturing region after region and ruled the country for two centuries. They were finally forced to quit the nation and give India back its freedom in August 15, 1947. But till then, the damage had already been done in the form of partition between India and Pakistan.
The Indian history can be classified as under:
The ancient civilization that prospered in the north, west and eastern region separated India from other continents. The long coastline was the only source to engage in trading. Soon a large number of ports were established to facilitate the landing and movement of ships. The trade flourished and India developed relations with Asian and European countries. India started exporting spices and herbs to Rome. The strategic location in the Indian Ocean provided all the advantages to the country to prosper economically.
All the great rivers that flow in India have helped in making the country the most self-reliant agricultural country. The irrigation department of states supplies water to the city for both daily necessities and vegetable production. The friendly and pleasant weather the country enjoys is suitable to all.
The medieval India belonged to the Rajput era. At this period, the lands were owned by the landlords and locals have to work in the field to earn their livelihood. However, the urge and greed to grab more lands made the Rajputs to fight with each others giving a way for the foreigners to exploit the differences and conflicts between them. Capitalizing on their shrewdness and military power, the Turks started launching victorious campaign against the Rajputs. The most powerful ruler at that time was Prithviraj Chauhan. Mohammad Ghori defeated him in 1192 in the battle of Tarain. Deriving inspiration with Ghori's victory, the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Sayyids, and the Lodis launched the invasion.
Babur was the first Mughal emperor who came to India in 1526. He first defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat. His legacy was continued further by his son, Humayun. It was Akbar, the grandson of Babur who ruled most of the northern and the southern region of India from 1556 to 1605. He was succeeded by his son Jahangir who reign spanned from 1605 to 1627. Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan was crowned as the emperor after him who ruled India from 1628 to 1658. He is mostly remembered as he gave the world a symbol of love - The Taj Mahal. The Mughal era collapsed with the downfall of Aurangzeb in 1707.
The spices, herbs and the fruits were Indian treasure. The story of its richness and immense potentiality reached to the far European countries which excited them and they started their voyage in order to fulfill their dream in this golden land. The Portuguese were the first to land their foot on this land. They came via the sea route in 1498 when Vasco De Gama discovered Calicut (presently Kolkatta). Their landing on this soil started the trade activities and they started building colonies along the coasts. After them, the Dutch, the English, and the French started their appearing in India. Since India had a lot to trade with, the English and the French started competing with each other. After seeing the immense wealth and the vast region, both these contenders soon started developing ambitions to gain a permanent foothold in India.
This is the Indian history in short. There are many things to be covered since this country has a huge historical background. Indiatravelfaq.com brings with more information about this culturally rich country.
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