Indian states and union territories are formed on the basis of various amendments in the constitution from time to time. India is a composition of 28 states and 7 union territories. They are virtually divided into seven major parts as northern, central, western, southern, eastern, and north-eastern, and the union territories.
Let us have a glance over Indian states and Union Territories
It was established in 1947 and Urdu is the official language. Dal lake, Gulmarg, Srinagar, Jammu, Pahalgam, Katra, Patnitop, and Leh are the main tourist spots. Vaishnodevi and Amarnath Yatra attract millions of tourists each year. Kashmiri, Urdu, and Dogri are the main languages.
Himachal Pradesh was established in 1971 and Shimla is its capital city. Pahari and Hindi are the prime languages. Main tourist spots here are Shimla, Kasauli, Manali, Dharamshala, Kullu, Chamba, Kangra, Chail, Dalhousie, Khajjiar, Lahaul and Spiti, Kinnaur, and Palampur. Snow Leopard is a unique animal specie found in the region.
Uttarakhand was established in 2000 and was previously known as Uttaranchal. Dehradun is its interim capital and Sankrit and Hindi are the main languages. The state is famous for Doh Dham and Char Dham yatras. Kedarnath, Badrinath, Gangotri, Yamunotri, and Haridwar are the major pilgrimage centers. Rishikesh, Mussoorie, Nainital, Ranikhet, Jim Corbett National Park, Mukteshwar, Bhimtal, and Jageshwar are worth seeing.
Haryana was legally constituted in 1966 and Chandigarh is its capital. The state shares its capital city with Punjab. The three main languages here are Haryanvi, Hindi, and Punjabi. Prime tourist destinations include Kurukshetra, Yadavindra gardens, Sultanpur bird sanctuary, Bhima Devi temple, Tilyar lake, Panchkula, Morni hills, and Panipat.
Punjab, also called as the ‘Land of Five Rivers’ was established in 1966. Chandigarh is its capital city which it shares with Haryana. Punjabi and Hindi are the major languages of communication. The Golden Temple, Jallianwala Bagh, the site of Indus Valley Civilization at Ropar, and Rock Garden are the prime attractions.
Rajasthan, the largest state in India, is located in the northwestern part. It was formed in 1956 and Jaipur is its capital. Hindi is the official language. The important places here are Ranthambore, Mount Abu, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Ajmer, Ranakpur, Udaipur, Pushkar, and Bikaner.
Uttar Pradesh was formed in 1937 and was previously known as the United Provinces. Lucknow is the capital city and the official language used here is Hindi. Taj Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri, Agra Fort, Akbar’s Tomb, Allahabad, Varanasi, Mathura, Sarnath, Kaushambi, Kushinagar, and the sanctuaries of Hastinapur, Okhla, Bakhira, and Kaimoor are a must-watch.
Bihar was established in 1912 and Patna is the state-capital. Main languages spoken here are Maithili, Hindi, and Urdu. Main spots worth seeing are the Nalanda university, Bodh Gaya, Bodhi tree, Barabar caves, Mahabodhi Temple, Rohtasgarh, Mahatma Gandhi Setu, Bhimbandh wildlife sanctuary, and Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary.
Central Region (Central Indian States)
Chhattisgarh is an important state in the area and was constituted in 2000. Raipur is its capital city and the primary languages used are Chhattisgarhi and Hindi. Chitrakote falls, Kotumsar caves, Ramgarh and Sita Bengra, Kailash caves, Indravati National Park, Tirathgarh Waterfalls, Kanger Valley National Park, Sirpur, and Danteshwari temple are some of the significant sites here.
Madhya Pradesh forms a major part of central India. It came into existence in 1956 with Bhopal as its capital. Languages commonly used here are Marathi, English, Hindi, and Urdu. The most appealing sites here are the Khajuraho monuments, Bhimbetka Rock Shelters, and Buddhist monuments at Sanchi. Bandhavgarh and Kanha national parks are worth seeing.
Western Region (Western Indian States)
Maharashtra, the wealthiest Indian state, was constituted in 1960. Marathi is the official language. Significant tourist places include Tadoba Tiger Reserve, Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Matheran, Khandala, Mahabaleshwar, Lonavla, Trimbakeshwar, Ganpati Pule, Ajanta and Ellora caves, Elephanta caves, Shirdi, and the Gateway of India.
Gujarat was established in 1960 and its capital city is Gandhinagar. Gujrati is the main language of the masses. Prime sites include Saputara, Palitana, Wilson Hills, Pavagadh, Akshardham temple, Swaminarayan temple, Gir National Park, Gulf of Kutch, and Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary.
Goa, the top tourist spot in India, came into existence in 1987. The official language here is Konkani. The unique locations here are Bom Jesus Basilica, Mangeshi temple, churches and convents of old Goa, and the beaches at Kolva, Benalim, Calangute, Anjuna, Baga, and Dona-Paula.
Southern Region (Southern Indian States)
Andhra Pradesh, the ‘Rice Bowl of India’, came into effect in 1956. Hyderabad is its capital city and the languages commonly spoken are Telugu, Urdu, and English.
The prime locations here are Tirumala-Tirupati, Vishakhapatnam, Saraswathi temple at Basar, Charminar, Golconda Fort, Falaknuma Palace, and Mecca Masjid.
Kerala is another big tourist destination and lies on the Malabar Coast. It was formed in 1956 and its capital city is Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the official language here. The main tourist spots here are Kovalam Beach, Padmanabhaswamy Temple, St. Francis Church, Cherai Beach, Guruvayoor Temple, Periyar National Park, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, and Eravikulam National Park.
Karnataka, previously known as the State of Mysore, got its present name in 1973. The state was officially formed in 1956. Bangalore is the capital city and the official language used is Kannada. The Tipu Sultan Palace, Pattadakal, Hampi, Jog Falls, Nandi Hills, Bandipur National Park, Shravanbelagola, and the cities of Bangalore and Mysore are the top spots.
Tamil Nadu was established in 1950 and Chennai is its capital. Tamil is the prime language. The main sites include Rameshwaram, Kanchipuram, Monuments in Mahabalipuram, Nilgiri Mountain Railways, Chola Temples, Madurai, Udagamandalam, Kodaikanal, Marina Beach, and Kanyakumari.
Eastern Region (Eastern Indian States)
West Bengal is a historic state formed in 1956. Its capital city is Kolkata and the official languages followed here are Bengali and English. Darjeeling, Sundarbans, and Siliguri are the top sights here. Cooch Behar Palace, Shantiniketan, Adina Mosque, Dakshineshwar Kali Temple, Howrah Bridge, Buxa Tiger Reserve, Rajganj Wildlife Sanctuary, Bishnupur Terracotta Temples, and J C Bose Botanic Garden with the Great Banayan Tree are included in the top wonders of the state.
Orissa, now called as ‘Odisha’, was constituted in 1936. the official language used here is Oriya and Bhubaneshwar is the state capital. The famous Chilka lake, which is also a major bird sanctuary and one of the only two locations in the world for Irrawaddy Dolphins, is a major tourist attraction. The state is a major home for the Royal Bengal tigers. Heritage sites here include Konark Sun Temple, and Jagannath Temple.
Jharkand was legally formed in 2000 and Ranchi was declared as its capital city. The languages used here are Maithali, Urdu, Santhali, and Hindi. Tourists prefer visiting the areas like the Jubilee park, Jawaharlal Nehru Biological Park, Tagore Hills, Jagannathpur Temple, Ranchi Hills, Sun Temple, Parasnath, Gonda Hill and Rock Garden, Nakshatra Van, Birsa Jaivik Udyan, and Ranchi Lake.
North-Eastern Region (North-Eastern Indian States)
Arunachal Pradesh was officially declared as a state under the Union of India in 1987. Itanagar is the capital city and English is the official language of the state.
On your tour, you should not miss Bomdila, Parshuram Kund, Akashiganga, Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, Namdhapa National Park, Dihang-Debang Biosphere Reserve, Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary, Tawang, Sessa Orchid Sanctuary.
Assam was officially formed in 1947. Dispur is the state capital. Several languages like Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, and Karbi are used for communication. The state is famous for tea and silk production. The significant locations here are Kaziranga National Park, Brahmaputra, Majuli, Guwahati, Hajo, Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, and Haflong.
Manipur established in 1972 and Imphal is the state-capital. The language used here is Meiteilon. Prime tourist spots include Shree Govindajee Temple, Loktak Lake, Tengnoupal, Leimram Waterfall, Keibul Lamjao National Park, amd Manipur State Museum.
Meghalaya was constitutionally formed in 1972 and Shillong is the capital city. The main languages in use are Garo, Khasi, Hindi, Pnar, and English. The places worth visiting are Cherrapunji, Diengiei Peak, Kyallang Rock, Nohkalikai Falls, Ranikor, and Jakrem.
Mizoram was constituted in 1987. Mizo is the main language of interaction and Aizawl is the state-capital. Dampa Sanctuary, Vantawng Falls, Tadmil, and Phawngpui are some of the favorite tourist spots.
Nagaland was declared as a state in 1963. Kohima is the capital city and English is the official language of the state. Dimapur, Intanki National Park, Dzukou Valley, Dzulekie, Japfu Peak, and Kohima are the spots worth visiting.
Sikkim was formed in 1975. Gangtok is the capital city and the languages spoken are Lepcha, Nepali, Sunwar, Sherpa, Bhutia, Limbu, Tamang, Kulung, Gurung, Newari, and Mangar. The places you must see are Singiek, Yumthang, Namtse, Borong, Tendong Hill, Varsey, Tashi View Point, Hanuman Tok, Ganesh Tok, Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary, Fambong La Wildlife Sanctuary, and Nathu La Pass.
Tripura became an official state of India in 1972. The city of Agartala is declared as the state capital. The official languages in practice are Kokborok and Bengali. The most famous sites here are Tripura Sundari Temple, Neermahal, Fourteen Goddess Temple, Jampui Hills, Udaipur, and Bhuvaneshwari Temple.
National Capital Territory of Delhi includes the Delhi city (capital city of India) Sonepat, Baghpat, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida, Greater Noida, and Ghaziabad. The major tourist locations are the India Gate, Lotus Temple, Parliament, Rashtrapati Bhavan, Red Fort, Humayun’s Tomb, Qutub Minar, Laxminarayan Temple, Akshardham Temple, Jantar Mantar, Raj Ghat, Jama Masjid, and Gurudwara Bangla Sahib.
Daman and Diu was established in 1987 and has Daman as its capital. It is famous for Nagoa beach, Nani Daman, Devka Beach, Gangeshwar Temple, Church of Bom Jesus, Hilsa Aquarium, Moti Daman Fort, and the Fort of Diu. The languages spoken in the territory are Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, English, and Portuguese.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli, established in 1961, has Silvassa as its Capital. The main languages used are Gujarati, Marathi, and Hindi. Some major tourist spots include Tadkeshwara Temple, Lion Safari (Vasona), and the Tribal Museum.
Lakshwadeep was constituted in 1956 and Kavaratti is its capital. The languages spoken are Malayalam, English, and Dhivehi. Places like Bangaram, Kavaratti, Kalpeni, Kadmat, Minicoy, and Agatti are beautiful to see.
Pondicherry was formed in 1963. The people here speak languages like French, Telugu, Tamil, and Malayalam. It is famous for Promenade, Serenity, Paradise, and Auroville beaches. Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Botanical Garden, and Ousteri Wetland and National Park are worth visiting.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands were established in 1956 and Port Blair is their capital city. Some prime places of interest are Ross Island, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park, Baratang Island, cellular jail, Nicobar Islands, Clinque Islands, and Neil Islands.